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A Sabattier print is made by re-exposing a partially developed print to light during the processing. This gives a print both positve and negative qualities and adds "halo" like Mackie lines between adjacent highlight and shadow areas. The technique is commonly known as solarization, although, strictly speaking, solarization (which looks similar) takes place only when film is massively overexposed. The correct name for the phenomenon described here is the sabbattier effect.

The unusual appearance of a Sabbattier print results from a combination of effects. When the print is re-exposed to light during processing, there is little effect on the dark areas of the print because most of the crystals there have already been exposed and reduced to black silver by the developing process. The bright areas, however, still contain many sensitive crystals that can respond to light and development. The bright areas thererfore turn gray but usually remain lighter than the shadows. Between the light and dark areas, by-products remaining from the first development retard further development; these border refions remain light, forming the mackie lines.

There are several ways to produce a Sabattier print. The simplest way, but the most difficult to control, is simply to turn on a light briefly while the print is in the developer. A procedure that gives much more control is found at the end of this text file.

Printing from a negative will give a positive image plus negative effects from the second exposure. You can also print from a positive color slide, which will give a negative image plus some positive effects. Black-and-white printing paper responds differently to colors in the slide: blue prints as black, yellow as white.

    Basic Procedure

Materials needed. A negarive of normal to high contrast.
Normal print processing chemicals. High contrast paper
or Multicontrast paper with a 31/2 to 4 filter.

First exposure. Put negative in enlarger and focus.
Expose a test print with a slightly lighter that normal
series of test exposures.

First development. Develop for the recommended time
for your developer.

Rinse. Wash in water for 30 secs to remove the surface
developer. Do not use an acid stop bath. Remove
excess water from the front and back of the print with a
squeegee or soft paper towels. Handle gently to avoid
scratching the fragile surface of the wet print.

Second exposure. Remove the negative from the
enlarger. Stop down (decrease the light) about two
stops. Re-expose the test print in stripts at a right angles
to the first exposures.

Second development. Develop once again for
the recommended time for your developer.
Treat print with stop bath and fixer;
wash and dry as usual.

Final print. Examine the test print and choose the
square that gives the desired effect


    Variations

Set the enlarger slightly out of focus. This will
broaden the Mackie lines without making the
image noticeably out of focus.  The Mackie lines
will also be broader with a less contrasty negative.

Develop for less than the standard time. Remove
the print quickly from the developer when the desired
effect is visible.

Develop in a more dilute developer (if the normal
dillution is 1:2 try 1:4, or even greater dillutions to
produce greater shifts).

Develop in two different developers. A cold tone
developer for one development and a warm-tone
developer for the other.  This will produce greater
color shifts.

Some photographers report better results if the print
is aged at this point in a dark place ( a photo blotter
book works well). aging times very from 15 minutes
to a week.

Dodging or burning in during the first and second
exposure will give different results.  The Mackie
Lines can be lightened by bleaching.  The reducing
formula given by Ansel Adams in his book The Print
is recommended. You can also try a local reduction
or immersion in farmer's reducer (dilluted 1:10).